Faculty Publications

To view the History Department's faculty publications select from the list below:


  • Russia and Iran in the Great Game: Travelogues and Orientalism, Routledge, June 2007. Reprinted as a paperback in 2010.
  • Rusiia va iran dar basi-yr bozorg. Safarnamehha va shargh geraii. [Persian], translated by Dr. Elaheh Koolaee and Mohammad Kazem Shojaee, University of Tehran, 2009.
  • Russians in Iran:  Ideology and Domination, co-edited with Rudi Matthee, I.B. Tauris, forthcoming in 2016.


  • Russian Government vs. Russian Deserters in Iran in the 19th century:  Russian Orientalism at the State Level,” in Russians in Iran: Ideology and Domination, co-ed. with Rudi Matthee, I.B.Tauris, forthcoming in 2017
  • “Mazanderan in Russian Sources (19th and early 20th centuries),” Majmu’ye-i mogalaat-i nakhostin hamaayesh-i beynalmallali.  Tarikh-i mahalli-yi Mazanderan (Proceedings of the First International Conference on Local History of Mazanderan), edited by Ali Ramazani Pachi, Havzhin Publishers, 2015
  • “Persian Cossack Brigade (1879-1921),” The Encyclopedia of Islam, 3rd edition, part 2016-4, Brill, 2016
  • “Discourse of Empathy:  Images from Central Asia in the Works of Nikolai Karazin (1842 – 1908),” Orientality:  Cultural Orientalism and Mentality, Milano: Silvana Editoriale S.p.A., 2015
  • “First Phase of Colonization:  Russian Villages in Iran in the Early 20th century,” with Morteza Nouraei, Journal of the International Society for Iranian Studies, vol. 46, no.3 (May 2013)
  • Guest Editor, Special Issue:  Power Interplay Between Iran and Russia from the Mid-Seventeenth to the Early Twenty-First Century, “Introduction,” with Maziar Behrooz, Journal of the International Society for Iranian Studies, vol. 46, no. 3 (May 2013)
  • “Zapiski russkikh puteshestvennikov ob Irane,”[Russian], Irano-Slavika, Moscow, 2010, no.1(21)
  • “Mohajerin-i rus wa eskan-i anha dar iran awayel-i qarn-i bist:  marhale-i digar az este’mar ,“ with Morteza Nouraei, [Persian] Journal of Historic Research, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, University of Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Year 45, New Sequential, no. 4, Winter 2010
  • “N. Karazin. Camp on Amu Daria,” translation from Russian, with Mark E. Woodcock, Metamorphosis, Spring 2010
  • "Singer of the Caucasus' Aliab'ev and the Beginning of Russian Orientalism in Music," in Muraqqa'e Sharqi:  Studies in Honor of Peter Chelkowski, Aiep, Repubblica S Marino, 2007
  • “Relationship between Iran and Russia,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, University of Columbia, 2013
  • "Russians at the Court of Mahammad-Ali Shah," Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, University of Columbia, 2010
  • “Russian Travelers to Iran in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, University of Columbia, 2005
  • “Russian Enterprises in Iran,” with Irina Pavlova, Encyclopadeia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, University of Columbia, 2010
  • “Iran in World War I,” Encyclopedia of World War I:  A Political, Social, and Military History.  Santa Barbara:  ABC-CLIO, 2005
  • “Iran in World War II,” Encyclopedia of World War II:  A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara:  ABC-CLIO, 2004
  • “Travelogues of Berezin, a Nineteenth-Century Russian in Iran,” in Society and Culture in Qajar Iran: Studies in Honor of Hafez Farmayan, Mazda Publishers, 2002
  • “The Work of Sadiq Hedayat and Problems of His Artistic Method: 1903-51,”  [Russian], Bulletin of Moscow State University, sec. 13, Orientalism, vol. 2, 1991, pp. 11-20
  • Translation of Dari modern poems and prose into Russian in 79-89: Rasskazy, ocherki, stikhi (‘79-‘89: Short stories, essays, poems), Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 1991. 

Work in progress:

  • Images of Russian Central Asia in the Works of Nikolai Karazin (1842-1908), Ambiguous Triumph under contract with Palgrave Macmillan 

Book Reviews:

  • Moritz Deutschmann, Iran and Russian Imperialism:  The ideal anarchists, 1800-1914 (London: Routledge, 2016), The Russian Review, forthcoming in July 2017
  • Evgeny Sergeev, The Great Game 1856-1907: Russo-British Relations in Central and East Asia (Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2013), The Journal of Military History.
  • John W. Parker, Persian Dream: Moscow and Tehran Since the Fall of the Shah (Potomac Books, 2008), Political Science Quarterly, Winter 2009-2010.
  • John Tchalenko, Images from the Endgame:  Persia through a Russian Lens 1901-1914 (Saqi, 2006), Journal of the International Society for Iranian Studies, vol. 41, no. 4 (Sept 2008) 
  • Hooshang Talé with Farhad Talé, Iran in the Claws of the Bear: The Failed Soviet Landgrab of 1946 (iUniverse, 2007), The Journal of Military History, October 2007, Vol. 71, no. 4
  • Rudi Matthee, The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900 (Princeton University Press, 2005), Irannameh, 2005.
  • Laurence Kelly, Diplomacy and Murder in Tehran: Alexander Griboedov and the Imperial Mission to the Shah of Iran, (I. B. Tauris, 2002), Iranian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3 (September 2003).


  • "What’s in a Word: Historicizing the Word ‘Caffre’ in European Discourses about Southern Africa, 1500-1800,” Journal of Southern African Studies (in press)
  • "On Heroes and Villains: The Times’ Reporting on the Cape Colony’s Frontier Wars, 1818-1853,” South African Military History Journal/Krygshistoriese Tydskrif 15 (6) (December 2012): 207-214.
  • "The True Napoleon of the West: General Winfield Scott’s Mexico City Campaign and the Origins of the U.S. Army’s Combined-Arms Combat Division,” The Journal of Military History 76 (3) (July 2012): 649-671. Winner of the Distinguished Writing Award, Army Historical Foundation, 2012.
  • "Treacherous Savages & Merciless Barbarians: Knowledge, Discourse, and Violence during the Cape Frontier Wars, 1834-1853,” Journal of Military History in 2010.


  • Associate Editor, Chronology of World Military History. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2009.
  • The Brusilov Offensive, in Decisive Battles of the Twentieth Century Series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.
  • Editor, Perspectives on World War II. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005.
  • Editor, Perspectives on World War I. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005.
  • Assistant Editor and contributor, Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005.


  • "The Brusilov Offensive," Essays on World War I. In the Center for Hungarian Studies and Publications Series, Eastern European Monographs. Edited by Peter Pastor and Graydon Tunstall. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. pp. 89-110.

Book Reviews:

  • Review of “Freiheit und Oeffentlichkeit: Politischer Samizdat in der DDR 1985-1989" (Freedom and Publication: Underground Political Publication in the German Democratic Republic 1985-1989) by Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk for the H-German electronic network. (Appeared November 2004)
  • Review of "Warfare and Society in Europe, 1898 to the Present" and "Warfare in World History," both by Michael Nieberg, in the July 2004 issue of the Journal of Military History.
  • Review, on H-German, of Das Ungarnbild der deutschen Historiographie (Bd. 13, Schriftenreihe des Instituts fuer Donauschwaebische Geschichte und Landeskunde. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004.)


  • Cultura militar española: modernistas, tradicionalistas y liberales. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2014.
  • Ed., Warfare in Europe, 1919-1938. (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008).
  • Franco: Soldier, Commander, Dictator. Washington D.C.: Potomac, 2005.
  • Irrational Triumph: Cultural Despair, Military Nationalism, and the Ideological Origins of Franco’s Spain. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2002.
  • Co-ed., War in the Age of Technology: Myriad Faces of Modern Armed Conflict. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Selected Book Chapters:

  • “Muslim Soldiers in a Spanish Crusade: Tomás García Figueras, Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni, and the Ideological Context of Spain’s Moroccan Soldiers”, in Eric Storm and Ali Al Tuma, eds., Colonial Soldiers in Europe, 1914-1945: “Aliens in Uniform” in Wartime Societies (Oxford: Routledge, 2016).
  • “Military Memories, History, and the Myth of Hispano-Arabic Identity in the Spanish Civil War,” in Aurora Morcillo, ed., Memory and Cultural History of the Spanish Civil War: Realms of Oblivion (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013).
  • "Rico Avello en Marruecos," in Juan Pan-Montojo, ed., El sueño republicano de Manuel Rico Avello (1886-1939). (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2011).
  • "The Practice and Politics of Spanish Counterinsurgency, 1895-1936," in Brian D. Bunk, Sasha D. Pack, and Carl-Gustaf Scott, eds., Nation and Conflict in Modern Spain: Essays in Honor of Stanley G. Payne (Madison: Parallel Press, 2008), pp. 137-150.
  • “Dangerous Neutrality: Spain, the Great War, and Modern Catalan Nationalism,” in Douglas Mackaman and Michael Mays, eds., World War I and the Cultures of Modernity (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000), pp. 117-124.

Selected Articles:

  • “Recepción literaria y cultura bélica: la Generación del 98, Ricardo Burguete, y el nacionalismo militar en España,” Bulletin of Spanish Studies, Vol. LXXXIV, n. 7 (2007), pp. 871-888.
  • “The Peculiarities of ‘Spanish Morocco’: Imperial Ideology and Economic Development,” Mediterranean Historical Review 20, n. 1 (2005), pp. 80-101.
  • “Military Nationalism and the State: The Case of Fin-de-Siècle Spain,” Nations and Nationalism 6, n. 2 (April 2000), pp. 257-274.
  • “Moral Strength through Material Defeat? The Consequences of 1898 for Spanish Military Culture,” War & Society 17, n. 2 (Oct. 1999), pp. 25-39. 


  • Associate Editor, Encyclopedia of Military Science. Edited by G. Kurt Piehler and M. Houston Johnson V. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013.


  • "The Air War: Germany and Italy.” In The Oxford Handbook on World War II, edited by G. Kurt Piehler. New York, NY: Oxford University Press (forthcoming, publication expected winter 2017).
  • “‘A Honey of a Field:’ The Development of McGhee Tyson Airport, 1927-1937” Journal Of East Tennessee History (forthcoming in Fall/Winter 2017 issue)


  • Review of The Next War in the Air: Britain’s Fears of the Bomber, 1908-1941, by Brett Holman. Journal of Military History, October 2014.
  • Review of Beneficial Bombing: The Progressive Foundations of American Air Power, 1917-1945, by Mark Clodeflter. War In History Book Reviews 22/3, July 2015.
  • Review of Empire of the Air: Aviation and the American Ascendancy by Jenifer van Vleck. Journal of Military History, April 2014.


  • “When America Took to the Air.” With Good Reason with Sarah McConnell. National Public Radio, August 30, 2014.
  • “Northrop Grumman.” In the Encyclopedia of Military Science. Edited by G. Kurt Piehler and M. Houston Johnson V. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013.
  • Co-author, “Physical Fitness.” In the Encyclopedia of Military Science. Edited by G. Kurt Piehler and M. Houston Johnson V. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013.


  • “’Our Once Beautiful but Now Desolated Valley’:  Farming in the Breadbasket of the Confederacy.”  In Home Front to Front Line:  The Civil War Era in the Shenandoah Valley, edited by Jonathan A. Noyalas, pp. 5-16.  New Market, VA:  Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation, 2009.
  • "'The Colored Laborers Work as Well as When Slaves':   African Americans in the Breadbasket of the Confederacy, 1850-1880."  In Archaeological Perspectives on the American Civil War.  Edited by Clarence R. Geier and Stephen Potter, 229-252.  Gainesville:  Univ. Press of Florida, 2000.
  • After the Backcountry:  Rural Life in the Great Valley of Virginia, 1800-1900.  Editor, with Warren R. Hofstra.  Knoxville:  Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2000.  (Nominated for a Virginia Literary Award in 2000).
  • "'The Staple of Our Country': Wheat in the Regional Farm Economy of the Nineteenth-Century Valley of Virginia." In After the Backcountry, 3-20.


  • “’The Time has Come Near that We Will All Have to Learn to Work’:  Farm Women of the Lower Shenandoah Valley and their Slaves during the Civil War,” Virginia Forum, Jamestown, VA, 2016.
  • "Patterns of Social Life and Leisure among Rural, Agrarian Populations of the Nineteenth-Century Valley of Virginia," Popular/American Culture Association, San Diego, California, 2005.
  • "Laboring Classes in the Valley of Virginia during the Age of Grain," Shenandoah Valley Regional Studies Seminar, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 2003.


  • “ePortfolios and Reflective Learning in Global Education” (with Christina R. McDonald), workshop, joint annual meetings of Association for Authentic, Experiential, and Evidence-Based Learning and Centre for Recording Achievement, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2016.
  • “Reflective Learning in the Composition of ePortfolios:  The Role of Reflective Tags,” American Association of Colleges and Universities, Washington, D.C., 2014.
  • “ePortfolios and the Study of Civilizations and Cultures” (with Christina R. McDonald and Mary Ann Dellinger), final report for participation (across three years), in Cohort VI of the Inter/National Coalition for Electronic Portfolio Research, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2013.


  • “Agriculture and Rural Life in Clarke County, Virginia, in the Mid-to-Late Nineteenth Century,” Keynote address for the 75th Anniversary Celebration of the Clarke County Historical Society, Berryville, VA, 2014.
  • “The History of Agriculture in the Valley of Virginia from Colonial Times to the Present,” keynote address, Natural Bridge Soil and Water Conservation District 75th Anniversary Celebration, Virginia Horse Center, Lexington, VA, 2013.
  • “Wheat, Tobacco, and the Formation of Agro-Ecological Regions of Virginia,” keynote address at the symposium, “Residential Development and the Working Landscape,” Baldwin Center for Preservation Development, Bonduran Farm, North Garden, VA, 2009.
  • "Ordinary People and Everyday Life in the Valley of Virginia During the Age of Grain," C. Gratton Price Lecture in Shenandoah Valley History, Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA, 2004.
  • "Settlement Systems and Agricultural Systems:  The Historical Geography of Farming in the Nineteenth-Century Valley of Virginia," Summer Geography Workshop for Secondary Teachers, sponsored by National Geographic Society, Frontier Culture Museum, Staunton, VA, 1997.


  • Brownsburg Museum, Brownsburg, VA.  Co-curator of an exhibit, “Grain into Gold:  Milling and Distilling in Lands of the Dividing Waters,” 2015-2016.
  • Frontier Culture Museum, Staunton, VA.  “Grist-Milling and Flour Production in the Shenandoah Valley during the Age of Grain.”  A scholarly study to assist museum personnel as they plan for the building of a historical grist mill and develop educational and interpretive plans for it, 2009.
  • Museum of the Shenandoah Valley (formerly, Glen Burnie Historic House, Gardens, and Julian Wood Glass Jr. Collection), Winchester, VA.  Guest scholar-curator for the development of exhibits on agriculture and rural life in the Museum of the Shenandoah Valley, 2000-2005.


  • Principal investigator, team leader, and editor, Historic Resources Study of the Cedar Creek-Belle Grove National Historic Park, Middletown, VA (commissioned by the United States National Park Service under the auspices of the Organization of American Historians).  Author of Part I, “From Backcountry to Breadbasket—and Beyond:  Topics, Themes, and Issues in the History of the Shenandoah Valley, 1730-1900.”  Three-year project; report submitted 2010.
  • McGraw-Hill Publishing.  Study Guide for Volume II of the Third Edition of Traditions and Encounters:  A Global Perspective on the Past, by Jerry Bentley and Herbert Ziegler, 2004.
  • The Virginia Cattlemen’s Foundation and the Dairy Foundation of Virginia.  Editor of Virginia’s Cattle Story:  The First Four Centuries, by Katharine L. Brown and Nancy T. Sorrells (Staunton, VA:  Lot’s Wife Publishing, 2004), viii plus 356 pp. Edited book manuscript for content, scholarship, and readability, 2002-2004.  (This volume won for its publisher, the 2006 Award of Merit from the American Association of State and Local History Leadership in History Awards).


  • The First Republican Army: The Army of Virginia and the Radicalization of the Union War Effort, 1862.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2016.


  • “Political Violence, Violent Politics: Protestant Democrats and Republicans at War in Virginia, 1862.”  History: The Journal of the Historical Association 101, July 2016.
  • “Seven Score and Ten: American Civil War Historiography at the Sesquicentennial.”  Journal of Military History 80:2, April 2016.
  • “What We Can Learn From How Americans Justify War.” The Statesman: The Journal of the John Jay Institute Center for a Just Society (January 2014).
  • “Kindling Backfires: Cultivating a National Antislavery Movement, 1836-38.” Slavery and Abolition 33, no. 3 (September 2013): 465-84.
  • “War in Earnest: The Army of Virginia and the Radicalization of the Union War Effort, 1862.” Civil War History 58, no. 2 (June 2012): 180-223. 


  • The Road to Black Ned's Forge:  A Story of Race, Sex, and Trade on the Colonial American Frontier.  Charlottesville:  University of Virginia Press, 2014.

Journal Articles:

  • McCleskey, Turk and James C. Squire. “Court-yard Crowds in Colonial Virginia.” Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History 49, no. 3 (2016): 92-100.
  • Sen, Tinni, Turk McCleskey, and Atin Basuchoudhary. "When Good Little Debts Went Bad: An Empirical Study of Small Claims Litigation on the Virginia Frontier, 1745-1755." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 46, no. 1 (Summer 2015): 60-89.
  • McCleskey, Turk and James C. Squire. "Random Selection of Petit Jurors on the Colonial Virginia Frontier, 1746-1755." Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History 47, no. 3 (2014): 128-137.
  • McCleskey, Turk and James C. Squire, "Pennsylvania Credit in the Virginia Backcountry, 1746-1755." Pennsylvania History 81, no. 2 (2014):207-255.
  • "Quarterly Courts in Backcountry Counties of Colonial Virginia." Journal of Backcountry Studies 7, no. 2 (2012): 47-57. http://libjournal.uncg.edu/index.php/jbc/article/view/570/330
  • "Rich Land, Poor Prospects: Real Estate and the Formation of a Social Elite in Augusta County, Virginia, 1738-1770." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98, no. 3 (1990): 449-486.

Contributions to books:

  • “Shadow Land: Provisional Real Estate Claims and Anglo-American Settlement in Southwestern Virginia.” In The Southern Colonial Backcountry: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Frontier Communities, edited by David C. Crass et al., 56-68. Chattanooga: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1998.
  • “The Price of Conformity: Class, Ethnicity, and Local Authority on the Colonial Virginia Frontier.” In Diversity and Accommodation: Essays on the Cultural Composition of the Virginia Frontier, edited by Michael J. Puglisi, 213-226. Chattanooga: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1997.
  • "Archaeology and the New Frontier History." In The Archaeology of 18th-Century Virginia, edited by T. Reinhart & D.W. Sanford, 273-281. Richmond: Council of Virginia Archaeologists & Archaeological Society of Virginia, 1996.

Encyclopedia entries:

  • “Israel Christian.” In Dictionary of Virginia Biography, 2d ed. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2005.
  • "Dunmore's War." In The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Encyclopedia, edited by Richard L. Blanco. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1993.
  • "John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore." Ibid.

Non-juried essay (but still mighty entertaining):

  • "Relic of Two Revolutions."  Augusta Historical Bulletin 38 (2002):65-71.

Book reviews:

  • Review of Jefferson's Freeholders and the Politics of Ownership in the Old Dominion, by Christopher Michael Curtis. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 121, no. 2 (2013): 180-182.
  • Review of American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People, by T. H. Breen. Journal of Southern History 78 (Feb. 2012): 151-152.
  • Review of Buying into the World of Goods: Early Consumers in Backcountry Virginia, by Ann Smart Martin. Journal of Social History 44 (Fall 2010): 285-288.
  • Review of World of Toil and Strife: Community Transformation in Backcountry South Carolina, 1750-1805, by Peter N. Moore. Journal of Southern History 74 (Aug. 2008): 717-718.
  • Review of The Planting of New Virginia: Settlement and Landscape in the Shenandoah Valley, by Warren R. Hofstra. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37 (Winter 2006): 466-468.
  • Review of Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years' War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754-1765, by Matthew C. Ward. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 112, no. 2 (2004): 188-190.
  • Review of From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers, by Allan Kulikoff. Journal of Social History 37 (Winter 2003): 556-558.
  • Review of The Fabulous History of the Dismal Swamp Company: A Story of George Washington's Times, by Charles Royster. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 109, no. 4 (2001): 420-421.
  • Review of Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary Hero: An American Warrior Reconsidered, by James Kirby Martin. Journal of Military History 63 (January 1999): 177-179.
  • Review of Border Life: Experience and Memory in the Revolutionary Ohio Valley, by Elizabeth A. Perkins. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 106, no. 4 (1998): 484-485.
  • Review of Undaunted Courage:  Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West, by Stephen E. Ambrose.  Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 105, no. 4 (1997): 475-476.
  • Review of Escape in America: The British Convention Prisoners, 1777-1783, by Richard Sampson. Journal of Military History (1996): 156-157.
  • Review of The Price of Nationhood: The American Revolution in Charles County, by Jean B. Lee. Journal of Military History (July 1995): 527-529.
  • Review of Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America, by A.G. Roeber. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 102, no. 4 (1994): 555-557.
  • Review of Appalachian Frontiers:  Settlement, Society, and Development in the Preindustrial Era, edited by Robert D. Mitchell, Journal of Economic History 52 (December 1992): 963-965.


  • Britain’s Economic Blockade of Germany, 1914-1919. London: Frank Cass, 2004.
  • Cruisers and Battle Cruisers: A History of their Impact. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004.
  • Destroyers. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004.
  • The Battle of Heligoland Bight. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, to be published in 2006.


  • “International Law versus Military Expediency: Great Britain’s World War I Economic Blockade of Germany.” Appeared in Proceedings of the American Historical Association, 2004.

Book Reviews:

  • Book Review of Terrell Gottschall: By Order of the Kaiser: Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy, 1865-1902. Appeared 2003 in Journal of Military History
  • Book Review of Martin Horn: Britain, France, and the Financing of the First World War. Appeared 2004 in Journal of Military History
  • Book Review of Kevin Stubbs: Race to the Front: The Material Foundations of Coalition Strategy in the Great War. Appeared 2004 in Journal of Military History


  • Ambush! Surprise Attack in Ancient Greek Warfare, London: Frontline Books, 2012.
  • William F. Friedman: A Man and His Collection, Online at the Marshall Library, January 2010.
  • Rome's Wars in Parthia: Blood in the Sand, London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2010.  Japanese edition, Tokyo: Hakusuish, 2014.
  • Operation Messiah: St Paul and Roman Intelligence, with Thijs Voskuilen London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2008
  • Spies from the Bible, London: Greenhill Books, 2007.  Polish edition:  Szpiedzy wywiady i tajne sluzby, Warsaw: Bellona Press, 2007.  Italian edition:  Spie della Bibbia, Libreria Editrice Goriziana, 2007.
  • Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome: Trust in the Gods, But Verify, London: Frank Cass, 2005.  Italian edition: Guerra segreta nell'antica Roma, Liberia Editrice Goriziana, 2008; 2nd edition 2014.  French edition:  Rensiegnement et Espionnage dans la Rome Antique, Paris:  Les Belles lettres, 2009.
  • Espionage in the Ancient World: An Annotated Bibliography, Jefferson: North Carolina, McFarland, 2003.


  • “Les Romains? Des amateurs à côté d’Hannibal,” Books n. 84 (July-August, 2017), pp. 12-14.
  • “Everything Old is New Again: Ancient Spying and Stratagems in Iraq and Syria,” War on the Rocks, December 29, 2016.
  • “Inteligencia military en la Roma del siglo 1 d.C.” (“Roman Military Intelligence in the First Century A.D.”  Desperta Ferro  Special no/ 10, (2016), pp. 34-38.
  • "Jesus as Security Risk:  Jesus and Repression in the Roman Empire," in War on the Rocks.com February 10, 2106.
  • "Hannibal as Spy Chief," Leidschrift.Historisch Tijdschrift 30, 3 (2015), pp. 25-45.
  • "Swords, Sandals, and Insurgencies:  Ancient History Goes to the Movies," Small Wars and Insurgencies 26, 4 (August 2015), pp. 578-596.
  • “A Guide to Ancient World Intelligence – From Antiquity to Rome,” The Intelligencer, 18/3 (Summer/Fall 2011), pp. 49-51.
  • "The Odysseus Syndrome: Ambush and Surprise in Ancient Greek Warfare," in: European History: Lessons for the 21st Century. Essays from the 3rd International Conference on European History, Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos and Nicholas C.J. Pappas, Athens: ATINER, 2007, ch. 8.
  • "Trajan's Parthian Adventure: With Some Modern Caveats," in: Eunan O'Halpin, Robert Armstrong, and Jone Ohlmeyer, (eds.) Intelligence, Statecraft and International Power. Historical Studies XXV. Papers read before the 27th Irish Conference of Historians Held at Trinity College, Dublin, 2005.
  • "Ancient Intelligence," Encyclopedia of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, Golson Books, 2004.
  • "Spy Tales," Bible Review (October 2003), pp. 12-19, 41-42.
  • "The Sator Rebus: An Unsolved Cryptogram?," Cryptologia 27,3 (July 2003), pp. 233-287.
  • “Slaughter in the Forest: Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 1-38.
  • “Toga and Dagger:  Espionage in Ancient Rome,” The Quarterly Journal of Military History, (Autumn 2000), pp. 28-33.
  • “To the Ends of the Earth: Caesar, Intelligence, and Ancient Britain,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 15,1 (Spring 2002), pp. 77-100.
  • “Jesus, The Security Risk:  Intelligence and Security in First Century Palestine,” Small Wars and Insurgencies,  9, 2 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 1-37.
  • “Clandestine Operations and Covert Action:  The Roman Imperative,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 10, 3 (Fall 1997), pp. 299-315.
  • “The Great Jewish War and Rome,” Proceedings of the Military and Naval History Forum, 8-9 March 1996, Lancaster, Pa.
  • “Clandestine Operations and Covert Action:  The Ancient Imperative,” Proceedings of the Military and Naval History Forum, 3 - 4 March 1995, Lancaster, Pa.
  • “Taking on Goliath:  Low-Intensity Conflict in the Great Jewish War,” Small Wars and Insurgencies,  5/1 (Spring, 1994),  pp. 1-28.
  • “Spies and Mailmen and the Royal Road to Persia,” American Intelligence Journal,  (Autumn/Winter 1992/3), pp. 37-40.
  • “The Spartacus Rebellion: A  Roman Intelligence Failure?”  International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,  6, 1 (1993),  pp. 69-84.
  • “Spying in Mesopotamia:  The World's Oldest Classified Documents,” Studies in Intelligence,   33,1 Spring  (1989),  pp. 7-12.
  • “L'Occhio di Roma,” Storia e Dossier, January (1989), pp. 46-49.
  • “A Quirk of Fate,” Intelligence Quarterly 3, 4 Spring (1988), p. 6.
  • “The Ill-fated Trojan-Spy,”   Studies in Intelligence, 31, 1 (1987), pp. 35-39.  Reprinted in American Intelligence Journal,  9, 3,  Fall (1988), pp. 18-22.
  • “Hannibal's Spies,”   International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, 3 (1987), pp. 53-70.
  • “The Polygraph, Adultery and the Romans or Fluttering in Antiquity,” Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 5, 2   March/April (1986),   p.  2.
  • “Hannibal's Spies,”   Espionage 2, 3 (August, 1986),  pp. 149-152.
  • “Tinker, Tailor, Caesar, Spy:  Intelligence in Ancient Rome,”   American Intelligence Journal June (1986), pp. 3-5.
  • “Tradecraft in Ancient Greece,”   Studies in Intelligence 30, 1 (1986), pp. 39-47.  Revised version with notes in International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, 2 (1988), pp. 189-202.
  • “Byzantine Counterintelligence and the Bulgarians,” Intelligence Quarterly, 1, 4   (February, 1986), p. 1.
  • “The Roman Secret Service,” Intelligence Quarterly 1, 2 (July, 1985), pp. 7-8.
  • “Toga and Dagger,” Washington Post, Op. Ed. July 16, 1985, p. A 15.  Reprinted in Signal 40, 1 (September , 1985),  pp. 55-57.
  • “Romanizzazione, Acculturazione e Resistenza:  Problemi Concettuali nella Storia del Nord Africa,” Dialoghi di Archeologia 4, 1 (1982), pp. 102-106.

Co-authored Articles:

  • Sheldon, R. M. and Young, Thomas-Durrell, “Meditations on a Forgotten Great,” Review Essay on B. H. Liddell Hart, Scipio Africanus:  Greater Than Napoleon, with a new Foreword by J. Enoch Powell, London: Greenhill Books/ Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1992,  Military and Naval History Forum Proceedings, (July, 1996), pp.  71-75.
  • Packer, James; Sarring, Kevin; and Sheldon, Rose Mary, “A New Excavation in Trajan's Forum,” American Journal of Archaeology,  87  (Spring, 1983), pp. 165-172.
  • "Three Previously Unpublished Roman Senatorial Inscriptions," Colloquio Internazionale A.I.E.G.E.L. su Epigrafia e Ordine Senatorio, Roma 14-20 Maggio 1981,  Tituli 4 (1982), pp. 599-601, 603-606, 627-628.
  • Latin Inscriptions in the Kelsey Museum, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1980 contributing author, pp. 119-130.

Book Reviews:

  • Adrian Goldsworthy. Pax Romana. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. In Journal of Military History 81, 1 (January 2017), pp. 211-212.
  • Fred Drogula, Commanders and Command in the Roman Republic and Early Empire, in: Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015, in:  Journal of Military History 79, 3 (2015), pp. 807-88.
  • Roberto Guerra, Cohortes Alpinorum. Truppe ausiliarie dell’antica Roma. Analisi storica e catalogo delle fonti epigrafiche, archeologiche e numismatiche, Venezia: Tipolithografia Rubino, 2013, Journal of Military History, 78, 3 (July 2014), pp. 1102-1103.
  • Nigel Pollard and Joanne Berry, The Complete Roman Legion, London: Thames & Hudson, 2012, in: Journal of Military History 77, 1 (Jan. 2013), pp. 317-18.
  • Christopher J. Fuhrmann, Policing the Roman Empire: Soldiers, Administration and Public Order, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, in: Journal of Military History, 77, 1 (Jan. 2013), pp. 317-18.
  • Simon James, Rome & the Sword; How Warriors and Weapons Shaped Roman History, London:  Thames & Hudson, 2011,  in: Journal of Military History 76, 1 (Jan. 2012), pp. 221-223.
  • Susan Heuck Allen, Classical Spies: American Archaeologists with the OSS in World War II Greece, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2012, in: Journal of Military History 76, 4 (Oct. 2012), pp. 1282-1284.
  • Christopher Matthew, A Storm of Spears: Understanding Greek Hoplite in Action, Philadelphia: Casemate, 2012 in The Historian 2013.
  • Richard A. Gabriel, “Philip II of Macedonia: Greater than Alexander,” The Historian 74,2 (2012), pp. 393-395.
  • Jonathan P. Roth, Roman Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, in: Journal of Military History 74, 4 (Oct. 2010), pp. 1259-1260.
  • Desmond Seward, Jerusalem’s Traitor: Josephus, Masada, and the Fall of Judea, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2009, in:  Journal of Military History, 73,4 (Fall 2009), pp. 1301-1303.
  • P. Sabin et. al., The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Vol. 2, Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Empire, (Cambridge, 2008) in: Michigan War Studies Review, 2008.09.02.
  • Theresa Urbainczyk, Slave Revolts in Antiquity, in: The Historian, vol. 72, 2 (June, 2010), pp. 463-464.
  • David Woolliscroft, and Birgitta Hoffman, The First Frontier. Rome in the North of Scotland, Stroud: Tempus, 2006 in Journal of Military History, 71, 1 (January, 2007), pp. 210-211.
  • Richard A. Gabriel, The Military History of Ancient Israel, foreword by Mordechai Gichon, Westport, CT:  Praeger, 2003, 334pp.  Journal of Military History 69, 1 (January 2005), pp. 197-204.
  • Peter Schaefer, The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, Tübingen:  Mohr Siebeck, 2003. Journal of Military History 68, 2 (April, 2004), pp. 582-584.
  • Peter S. Wells, The Battle That Stopped Rome, New York:  W.W. Norton, 2003 in Journal of Military History, 68.2 (2004) 582-584.
  • David J. Woolliscroft, Roman Military Signalling, Tempus, 2001 in Journal of Military History 67, 1 (January 2003) pp. 219-221.
  • Brent D. Shaw, Spartacus and the Slave Wars.  A Brief History with Documents, New York:  Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2001 in Journal of Military History Vol. 65, 4 (October 2001), pp. 1077-1079.
  • Frank S. Russell, Information Gathering in Classical Greece, Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1999, 300 pp.  in:   International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 14, 2 (Summer 2001), pp. 289-293.
  • Kurt Raaflaub and Nathan Rosenstein, War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds, Center for Hellenic Studies Colloquia 3, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press 1999, in Journal of Military History, 64, 3 (July, 2000), pp. 819-820.
  • Ralph Sawyer, The Tao of Spycraft, Boulder, CO:  Westview Press, 1998, Journal of Military History,  63, 2 (1999), pp. 432-435.
  • Antonio Santosuosso, Soldiers, Citizens and the Symbols of War.  From Classical Greece to Republican Rome 500-167 B.C. Boulder, Co.:  Westview Press, 1997 in: Military and Naval History Journal, 9 (April 1999),  pp. 79-81.
  • Nachman Ben-Yehuda, The Masada Myth. Collective Memory and Mythmaking in Israel, Madison, Wisconsin:  The University of Wisconsin Press, 1996, 401 pp., in: Journal of Military History,  62, 2  (1998), pp. 448-450.
  • N. J. E. Austin and N. B.  Rankov, Exploratio.  Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople.  New York:  Routledge, 1995, 292 pp, in International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 11, 1  (Spring 1998), pp. 104-114.
  • Adrian Keith Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 B.C. - A.D. 200, Oxford:  The Clarendon Press 1996 311pp, in: Journal of Military History 61, 4  (October, 1997), pp. 793-795.
  • Richard A. Gabriel and Donald W. Boose, Jr. The Great Battles of Antiquity, Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1994, in: Military and Naval History Forum Proceedings (March 9, 1996), pp. 80-81.
  • John Warry, Warfare in the Classical World, Norman, OK:  University of Oklahoma Press, 1995, 224 pp. in  Military and Naval History Journal,  No. 5,  (March, 1997), pp. 71-73.
  • A.D. Lee, Information and Frontiers, Cambridge, 1993, International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, Vol 9, 2 (Summer, 1996), pp. 241-248.
  • Keith Neilson & B.J.C. McKercher, Go Spy The Land, Praeger, 1992, in: Journal of Military History, 58, 1 (1994), pp. 139-140.
  • André Gerolymatos, Espionage and Treason, in: Intelligence and National Security 3, 1 (January,1988), pp.  220-223.


  • To the Fourth Shore: Italy's War for Libya (1911-1912) / Verso la Quarta Sponda: La Guerra italiana per la Libia (1911-1912). Rome: Historical Office, General Staff, Italian Army, 2012.
  • Victor Griffuelhes and French Syndicalism, 1895-1922. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.
  • Wars of Imperial Conquest in Africa, 1830-1914. London: UCL Press; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
  • Indian Wars of Mexico, Canada and the United States, 1812-1900. London: Routledge, 2006.


  • "Caesura: Azorean-North American Relations in the Years of the American War of Independence (1776-1783)," in Avelino Freitas de Meneses et al., eds., O Papel das Ilhas do Atlantico na Criacao do Contemporaneo. Angro do Heroismo, Terceira: Instituto Histórico da Ilha Terceira, 2000.
  • "Colonial Wars, 1815-1960," in Jeremy Black, ed., European Warfare, 1815-2000. Houndmills,
    Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave, 2002.
  • "France, Suez, and the Cold War," in Malcolm Muir, Jr. and Mark F. Wilkinson, eds., The Most Dangerous Years: The Cold War, 1953-1975. Lexington, Va.: The John A. Adams Center for Military History & Strategic Analysis, Virginia Military Institute, 2005.
  • "War in the Non-European World, " in Matthew Hughes & William J. Philpott, eds., Palgrave Advances in Modern Military History. Houndmills, Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
  • "New Light on the East African Theater of the Great War: A Review Essay of English-Language Sources," in Stephen M. Miller, ed., Soldiers and Settlers in Africa, 1850-1918. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2009.
  • "War and Imperial Expansion," in Roger Chickering, Dennis Showalter, and Hans van de Ven, eds., Vol. 4, War and the Modern World, 1850-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.


  • "CGT : le premier siècle -L'expérience de Griffuelhes," Le Mouvement social, 172 (juillet- septembre 1995): 51-62.

Encyclopedia entries:

  • Reader's Guide to Military History (London & Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2001)
    • "Abyssinia, British and Italian Expeditions, 1867-1896"
    • " Algeria: French Conquest of, 1830-1847"
    • "Ashanti Wars, 1823-1900"
    • "Indochina: French Subjugation of, 1858-1893"
    • "Wolseley, Garnet Joseph"
  • Naval Warfare: An International Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2002)
    • "Aube, Hyacinthe Laurent Théophile"
    • "Azores, Battles of the (1582-1583)"
    • "Boué de Lapeyrère, Augustin Emmanuel Hubert Gaston (1852-1924)"
    • "Bougainville, Louis Antoine de (1729-1811)"
    • "Brueys d'Aigalliers, François Paul de (1753-1798)"
    • "Castex, Raoul Victor Patrice (1878-1968)"
    • "Courbet, Amédée Anatole Prosper (1827-1885)"
    • "Decoux, Jean (1884-1963)"
    • "Dupuy de Lome, Stanislas Charles Henri Laurent (1816-1885)"
    • "Suffren de Saint-Tropez, Pierre André de (1729-1788)"
  • World War I: Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2005)
    • "Africa in World War I"
  • The Encyclopedia of the North American Colonial Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2008)
    • "Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, Comte de (1729-1811)"
    • "Chaussegros de Léry, Gaspard Joseph"
    • "Church, Benjamin (1630-1718)"
    • "Dumas, Jean-Daniel"
    • "La Corne Saint-Luc"
    • "Liénard de Beaujeu, Daniel-Hyacinthe Marie"
    • "Neolin (the Delaware Prophet)"
    • "Rale, Sébastien (also Rasle) (1652-1724)
    • "Stuyvesant, Petrus (c. 1610-1672)"
    • " Troupes de Marine"
    • "Weiser, Conrad (1698-1760)"
  • Encyclopedia of War (Oxford: Blackwell, 2011)
    • "Adowa, Battle of (1896)"
    • "Anglo-Ashanti Wars"
    • "Armée coloniale"
    • "Cadorna, Luigi"
    • "French Conquest of Algeria (1830-1847)"
    • "French Foreign Legion"
    • "Gungunhana (1850-1906)"
    • "Hoche, Gen. Louis Lazare"
    • "Pontiac (1720-1769)"
    • "Shamyl, Imam (1797-1871)"
    • "Touré, Samori "
    • "Troupes de Marine"
    • "Turco-Italian War of 1911-1912"
    • "World War I, Southern [Italian] Front"



  • "Touji zhiwai: Guojia zhengzhi shijiao xia de 1910 nian shanghai jinrong weiji [Beyond Speculation: State Politics and The 1910 Shanghai Rubber Share Crisis]" Shilin [Historical Review], Forthcoming in 2014.
  • "Hou xiandai zhuyi lishixue wushi nian suping [Featured Review: Post-Modern History - A Genealogical Sketch]" Shixue yuekan [Journal of Historical Science] (November 2013), pp. 121-132.


  • Editor, with Timothy Dowling, The Cold War: Opening Shots, 1945-1950. Lexington, VA: Virginia Military Institute, 2003.
  • Editor, The Korean War at Fifty: International Perspectives. Lexington, VA: John A. Adams 71 Center for Military History and Strategic Analysis, Virginia Military Institute, 2004.
  • Co-editor with Malcolm Muir, The Most Dangerous Years: The Cold War, 1953-1976. Lexington, VA: John A. Adams 71 Center for Military History and Strategic Analysis, Virginia Military Institute, 2005.


  • The Shanghai American Community and the Communist Revolution, Southeast Review of Asian Studies vol. XVII (1995): pp. 30-47.
  • Shanghai Perspective on the Marshall Mission, in George C. Marshall's Mediation Mission to China, December 1945-January 1947, edited by Larry I. Bland, with special assistance by Roger B. Jeans and Mark F. Wilkinson, Lexington, VA: George C. Marshall Foundation, 1998, pp. 327-56.
  • Internment in Shanghai, in The China Connection, 1999-2000.
  • "The Shanghai American Community, 1937-1949," in New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia, 1842-1952, edited by Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot, Manchester University Press (2000): pp. 231-49.
  • “American Military Misconduct in Shanghai and the Chinese Civil War: The Case of Zang Dayaozi” in The Journal of American-East Asian Relations 17:2 (2010): pp. 146-73.

Book Reviews:

  • Nicholas R. Clifford, Spoilt Children of Empire: Westerners in Shanghai and the Chinese Revolution of the 1920s in The Journal of Asian Studies, 51:3 (August 1992): 639-41.
  • Akira Iriye, Pearl Harbor and the Coming of the Pacific War: A Brief History with Documents and Essays St. Martin's Press, 1999, in The Journal of Military History, 64:1 (January 2000): 236-37.
  • Bernard Wasserstein, Secret War in Shanghai, Houghton-Miflin, 1999, in the Journal of Military History 64:3 (July 2000): 883-84.\
  • Masahira Yamamoto, Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity, Praeger, 2000, in The Journal of Military History, 65:4 (October 2001): 1130-32.
  • Christopher Bo Bramsen, Open Doors: Vilhelm Meyer and the Establishment of General Electric in China Curzon Press, 2001, in Pacific Affairs 74:4 (Winter, 2001-02): 595-96.
  • Bruce Elleman, Wilson and China: A Revised History of the Shandong Question, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, in The Journal of Military History 67:2 (April 2003): 585-87.
  • Greg Leck, Captives of Empire: The Japanese Internment of Allied Civilians in China 1941-1945, Shandy Press, 2006, in The Journal of Military History 72:4 (October 2008): 1316-17.

Encyclopedia Entries:

  • Spencer Tucker, ed. Encyclopedia of World War I: a Political, Social and Military History ABC-Clio, 2005.
    Entries: Shandong (Shantung) Settlement
    Yuan Shikai
  • Spencer Tucker, ed. Encyclopedia of World War II: a Political, Social and Military History ABC-Clio, 2005.
    Entries: Evans Fordyce Carlson
    Moscow Conference
    Peng Dehuai
    Sun Liren